Source code for holoviews.core.dimension

Provides Dimension objects for tracking the properties of a value,
axis or map dimension. Also supplies the Dimensioned abstract
baseclass for classes that accept Dimension values.
from __future__ import unicode_literals
import re
import datetime as dt
from operator import itemgetter

import numpy as np
import param

from ..core.util import (basestring, sanitize_identifier, isfinite,
                         group_sanitizer, label_sanitizer, max_range,
                         find_range, dimension_sanitizer, OrderedDict,
                         bytes_to_unicode, unicode, dt64_to_dt, unique_array,
                         builtins, config, dimension_range, disable_constant)
from .options import Store, StoreOptions
from .pprint import PrettyPrinter

# Alias parameter support for pickle loading

ALIASES = {'key_dimensions': 'kdims', 'value_dimensions': 'vdims',
           'constant_dimensions': 'cdims'}

title_format = "{name}: {val}{unit}"

[docs]def param_aliases(d): """ Called from __setstate__ in LabelledData in order to load old pickles with outdated parameter names. Warning: We want to keep pickle hacking to a minimum! """ for old, new in ALIASES.items(): old_param = '_%s_param_value' % old new_param = '_%s_param_value' % new if old_param in d: d[new_param] = d.pop(old_param) return d
[docs]def process_dimensions(kdims, vdims): """ Processes kdims and vdims specifications into a dictionary of dimensions which can be passed to params. """ dimensions = {} for group, dims in [('kdims', kdims), ('vdims', vdims)]: if dims is None: continue elif isinstance(dims, (tuple, basestring, Dimension, dict)): dims = [dims] elif not isinstance(dims, list): raise ValueError("%s argument expects a Dimension or list of dimensions, " "specified as tuples, strings, dictionaries or Dimension " "instances, not a %s type. Ensure you passed the data as the " "first argument." % (group, type(dims).__name__)) for dim in dims: if not isinstance(dim, (tuple, basestring, Dimension, dict)): raise ValueError('Dimensions must be defined as a tuple, ' 'string, dictionary or Dimension instance, ' 'found a %s type.' % type(dim).__name__) dimensions[group] = [d if isinstance(d, Dimension) else Dimension(d) for d in dims] return dimensions
[docs]class redim(object): """ Utility that supports re-dimensioning any HoloViews object via the redim method. """ def __init__(self, parent, mode=None): self.parent = parent # Can be 'dataset', 'dynamic' or None self.mode = mode def __str__(self): return "<holoviews.core.dimension.redim method>"
[docs] @classmethod def replace_dimensions(cls, dimensions, overrides): """ Replaces dimensions in a list with a dictionary of overrides. Overrides should be indexed by the dimension name with values that is either a Dimension object, a string name or a dictionary specifying the dimension parameters to override. """ replaced = [] for d in dimensions: if in overrides: override = overrides[] elif d.label in overrides: override = overrides[d.label] else: override = None if override is None: replaced.append(d) elif isinstance(override, (basestring, tuple)): replaced.append(d(override)) elif isinstance(override, Dimension): replaced.append(override) elif isinstance(override, dict): replaced.append(d.clone(override.get('name',None), **{k:v for k,v in override.items() if k != 'name'})) else: raise ValueError('Dimension can only be overridden ' 'with another dimension or a dictionary ' 'of attributes') return replaced
def _filter_cache(self, dmap, kdims): """ Returns a filtered version of the DynamicMap cache leaving only keys consistently with the newly specified values """ filtered = [] for key, value in if not any(kd.values and v not in kd.values for kd, v in zip(kdims, key)): filtered.append((key, value)) return filtered def __call__(self, specs=None, **dimensions): """ Replace dimensions on the dataset and allows renaming dimensions in the dataset. Dimension mapping should map between the old dimension name and a dictionary of the new attributes, a completely new dimension or a new string name. """ parent = self.parent redimmed = parent if parent._deep_indexable and self.mode != 'dataset': deep_mapped = [(k, v.redim(specs, **dimensions)) for k, v in parent.items()] redimmed = parent.clone(deep_mapped) if specs is not None: if not isinstance(specs, list): specs = [specs] matches = any(parent.matches(spec) for spec in specs) if self.mode != 'dynamic' and not matches: return redimmed kdims = self.replace_dimensions(parent.kdims, dimensions) vdims = self.replace_dimensions(parent.vdims, dimensions) zipped_dims = zip(parent.kdims+parent.vdims, kdims+vdims) renames = { nk for pk, nk in zipped_dims if pk != nk} if self.mode == 'dataset': data = if renames: data = parent.interface.redim(parent, renames) return parent.clone(data, kdims=kdims, vdims=vdims) if self.mode != 'dynamic': return redimmed.clone(kdims=kdims, vdims=vdims) from ..util import Dynamic def dynamic_redim(obj, **dynkwargs): return obj.redim(specs, **dimensions) dmap = Dynamic(parent, streams=parent.streams, operation=dynamic_redim) = OrderedDict(self._filter_cache(redimmed, kdims)) with disable_constant(dmap): dmap.kdims = kdims dmap.vdims = vdims return dmap def _redim(self, name, specs, **dims): dimensions = {k:{name:v} for k,v in dims.items()} return self(specs, **dimensions) def cyclic(self, specs=None, **values): return self._redim('cyclic', specs, **values) def value_format(self, specs=None, **values): return self._redim('value_format', specs, **values) def range(self, specs=None, **values): return self._redim('range', specs, **values) def label(self, specs=None, **values): for k, v in values.items(): dim = self.parent.get_dimension(k) if dim and != dim.label and dim.label != v: raise ValueError('Cannot override an existing Dimension label') return self._redim('label', specs, **values) def soft_range(self, specs=None, **values): return self._redim('soft_range', specs, **values) def type(self, specs=None, **values): return self._redim('type', specs, **values) def step(self, specs=None, **values): return self._redim('step', specs, **values) def default(self, specs=None, **values): return self._redim('default', specs, **values) def unit(self, specs=None, **values): return self._redim('unit', specs, **values) def values(self, specs=None, **ranges): return self._redim('values', specs, **ranges)
[docs]class Dimension(param.Parameterized): """ Dimension objects are used to specify some important general features that may be associated with a collection of values. For instance, a Dimension may specify that a set of numeric values actually correspond to 'Height' (dimension name), in units of meters, with a descriptive label 'Height of adult males'. All dimensions object have a name that identifies them and a label containing a suitable description. If the label is not explicitly specified it matches the name. These two parameters define the core identity of the dimension object and must match if two dimension objects are to be considered equivalent. All other parameters are considered optional metadata and are not used when testing for equality. Unlike all the other parameters, these core parameters can be used to construct a Dimension object from a tuple. This format is sufficient to define an identical Dimension: Dimension('a', label='Dimension A') == Dimension(('a', 'Dimension A')) Everything else about a dimension is considered to reflect non-semantic preferences. Examples include the default value (which may be used in a visualization to set an initial slider position), how the value is to rendered as text (which may be used to specify the printed floating point precision) or a suitable range of values to consider for a particular analysis. Units ----- Full unit support with automated conversions are on the HoloViews roadmap. Once rich unit objects are supported, the unit (or more specifically the type of unit) will be part of the core dimension specification used to establish equality. Until this feature is implemented, there are two auxiliary parameters that hold some partial information about the unit: the name of the unit and whether or not it is cyclic. The name of the unit is used as part of the pretty-printed representation and knowing whether it is cyclic is important for certain operations. """ name = param.String(doc=""" Short name associated with the Dimension, such as 'height' or 'weight'. Valid Python identifiers make good names, because they can be used conveniently as a keyword in many contexts.""") label = param.String(default=None, doc=""" Unrestricted label used to describe the dimension. A label should succinctly describe the dimension and may contain any characters, including Unicode and LaTeX expression.""") cyclic = param.Boolean(default=False, doc=""" Whether the range of this feature is cyclic such that the maximum allowed value (defined by the range parameter) is continuous with the minimum allowed value.""") value_format = param.Callable(default=None, doc=""" Formatting function applied to each value before display.""") range = param.Tuple(default=(None, None), doc=""" Specifies the minimum and maximum allowed values for a Dimension. None is used to represent an unlimited bound.""") soft_range = param.Tuple(default=(None, None), doc=""" Specifies a minimum and maximum reference value, which may be overridden by the data.""") type = param.Parameter(default=None, doc=""" Optional type associated with the Dimension values. The type may be an inbuilt constructor (such as int, str, float) or a custom class object.""") default = param.Parameter(default=None, doc=""" Default value of the Dimension which may be useful for widget or other situations that require an initial or default value.""") step = param.Number(default=None, doc=""" Optional floating point step specifying how frequently the underlying space should be sampled. May be used to define a discrete sampling over the range.""") unit = param.String(default=None, allow_None=True, doc=""" Optional unit string associated with the Dimension. For instance, the string 'm' may be used represent units of meters and 's' to represent units of seconds.""") values = param.List(default=[], doc=""" Optional specification of the allowed value set for the dimension that may also be used to retain a categorical ordering.""") # Defines default formatting by type type_formatters = {} unit_format = ' ({unit})' presets = {} # A dictionary-like mapping name, (name,) or # (name, unit) to a preset Dimension object def __init__(self, spec, **params): """ Initializes the Dimension object with the given name. """ if 'name' in params: raise KeyError('Dimension name must only be passed as the positional argument') if isinstance(spec, Dimension): existing_params = dict(spec.get_param_values()) elif (spec, params.get('unit', None)) in self.presets.keys(): preset = self.presets[(str(spec), str(params['unit']))] existing_params = dict(preset.get_param_values()) elif isinstance(spec, dict): existing_params = spec elif spec in self.presets: existing_params = dict(self.presets[spec].get_param_values()) elif (spec,) in self.presets: existing_params = dict(self.presets[(spec,)].get_param_values()) else: existing_params = {} all_params = dict(existing_params, **params) if isinstance(spec, tuple): if not all(isinstance(s, basestring) for s in spec) or len(spec) != 2: raise ValueError("Dimensions specified as a tuple must be a tuple " "consisting of the name and label not: %s" % str(spec)) name, label = spec all_params['name'] = name all_params['label'] = label if 'label' in params and (label != params['label']): if params['label'] != label: self.warning('Using label as supplied by keyword ({!r}), ignoring ' 'tuple value {!r}'.format(params['label'], label)) all_params['label'] = params['label'] elif isinstance(spec, basestring): all_params['name'] = spec all_params['label'] = params.get('label', spec) if all_params['name'] == '': raise ValueError('Dimension name cannot be the empty string') if all_params['label'] in ['', None]: raise ValueError('Dimension label cannot be None or the empty string') values = params.get('values', []) if isinstance(values, basestring) and values == 'initial': self.warning("The 'initial' string for dimension values is no longer supported.") values = [] all_params['values'] = list(unique_array(values)) super(Dimension, self).__init__(**all_params) if self.default is not None: if self.values and self.default not in values: raise ValueError('%r default %s not found in declared values: %s' % (self, self.default, self.values)) elif (self.range != (None, None) and ((self.range[0] is not None and self.default < self.range[0]) or (self.range[0] is not None and self.default > self.range[1]))): raise ValueError('%r default %s not in declared range: %s' % (self, self.default, self.range)) @property def spec(self): "Returns the corresponding tuple specification" return (, self.label) def __call__(self, spec=None, **overrides): "Aliased to clone method. To be deprecated in 2.0" return self.clone(spec=spec, **overrides)
[docs] def clone(self, spec=None, **overrides): """ Derive a new Dimension that inherits existing parameters except for the supplied, explicit overrides """ settings = dict(self.get_param_values(onlychanged=True), **overrides) if spec is None: spec = (, overrides.get('label', self.label)) if 'label' in overrides and isinstance(spec, basestring) : spec = (spec, overrides['label']) elif 'label' in overrides and isinstance(spec, tuple) : if overrides['label'] != spec[1]: self.warning('Using label as supplied by keyword ({!r}), ignoring ' 'tuple value {!r}'.format(overrides['label'], spec[1])) spec = (spec[0], overrides['label']) return self.__class__(spec, **{k:v for k,v in settings.items() if k not in ['name', 'label']})
def __hash__(self): """ The hash allows Dimension objects to be used as dictionary keys in Python 3. """ return hash(self.spec) def __setstate__(self, d): """ Compatibility for pickles before alias attribute was introduced. """ super(Dimension, self).__setstate__(d) self.label = def __eq__(self, other): "Implements equals operator including sanitized comparison." if isinstance(other, Dimension): return self.spec == other.spec # For comparison to strings. Name may be sanitized. return other in [, self.label, dimension_sanitizer(] def __ne__(self, other): "Implements not equal operator including sanitized comparison." return not self.__eq__(other) def __lt__(self, other): "Dimensions are sorted alphanumerically by name" return < if isinstance(other, Dimension) else < other def __str__(self): return def __repr__(self): return self.pprint() @property def pprint_label(self): "The pretty-printed label string for the Dimension" unit = ('' if self.unit is None else type(self.unit)(self.unit_format).format(unit=self.unit)) return bytes_to_unicode(self.label) + bytes_to_unicode(unit) def pprint(self): changed = dict(self.get_param_values(onlychanged=True)) if len(set([changed.get(k, k) for k in ['name','label']])) == 1: return 'Dimension({spec})'.format(spec=repr( ordering = sorted( sorted(changed.keys()), key=lambda k: (- float('inf') if self.params(k).precedence is None else self.params(k).precedence)) kws = ", ".join('%s=%r' % (k, changed[k]) for k in ordering if k != 'name') return 'Dimension({spec}, {kws})'.format(spec=repr(, kws=kws)
[docs] def pprint_value(self, value): """ Applies the defined formatting to the value. """ own_type = type(value) if self.type is None else self.type formatter = (self.value_format if self.value_format else self.type_formatters.get(own_type)) if formatter: if callable(formatter): return formatter(value) elif isinstance(formatter, basestring): if isinstance(value, (dt.datetime, return value.strftime(formatter) elif isinstance(value, np.datetime64): return dt64_to_dt(value).strftime(formatter) elif re.findall(r"\{(\w+)\}", formatter): return formatter.format(value) else: return formatter % value return unicode(bytes_to_unicode(value))
[docs] def pprint_value_string(self, value): """ Pretty prints the dimension name and value using the global title_format variable, including the unit string (if set). Numeric types are printed to the stated rounding level. """ unit = '' if self.unit is None else ' ' + bytes_to_unicode(self.unit) value = self.pprint_value(value) return title_format.format(name=bytes_to_unicode(self.label), val=value, unit=unit)
[docs]class LabelledData(param.Parameterized): """ LabelledData is a mix-in class designed to introduce the group and label parameters (and corresponding methods) to any class containing data. This class assumes that the core data contents will be held in the attribute called 'data'. Used together, group and label are designed to allow a simple and flexible means of addressing data. For instance, if you are collecting the heights of people in different demographics, you could specify the values of your objects as 'Height' and then use the label to specify the (sub)population. In this scheme, one object may have the parameters set to [group='Height', label='Children'] and another may use [group='Height', label='Adults']. Note: Another level of specification is implicit in the type (i.e class) of the LabelledData object. A full specification of a LabelledData object is therefore given by the tuple (<type>, <group>, label>). This additional level of specification is used in the traverse method. Any strings can be used for the group and label, but it can be convenient to use a capitalized string of alphanumeric characters, in which case the keys used for matching in the matches and traverse method will correspond exactly to {type}.{group}.{label}. Otherwise the strings provided will be sanitized to be valid capitalized Python identifiers, which works fine but can sometimes be confusing. """ group = param.String(default='LabelledData', constant=True, doc=""" A string describing the type of data contained by the object. By default this will typically mirror the class name.""") label = param.String(default='', constant=True, doc=""" Optional label describing the data, typically reflecting where or how it was measured. The label should allow a specific measurement or dataset to be referenced for a given group.""") _deep_indexable = False def __init__(self, data, id=None, plot_id=None, **params): """ All LabelledData subclasses must supply data to the constructor, which will be held on the .data attribute. This class also has an id instance attribute, which may be set to associate some custom options with the object. """ = data = id self._plot_id = plot_id or if isinstance(params.get('label',None), tuple): (alias, long_name) = params['label'] label_sanitizer.add_aliases(**{alias:long_name}) params['label'] = long_name if isinstance(params.get('group',None), tuple): (alias, long_name) = params['group'] group_sanitizer.add_aliases(**{alias:long_name}) params['group'] = long_name super(LabelledData, self).__init__(**params) if not group_sanitizer.allowable( raise ValueError("Supplied group %r contains invalid characters." % elif not label_sanitizer.allowable(self.label): raise ValueError("Supplied label %r contains invalid characters." % self.label)
[docs] def clone(self, data=None, shared_data=True, new_type=None, *args, **overrides): """ Returns a clone of the object with matching parameter values containing the specified args and kwargs. If shared_data is set to True and no data explicitly supplied, the clone will share data with the original. May also supply a new_type, which will inherit all shared parameters. """ params = dict(self.get_param_values()) if new_type is None: clone_type = self.__class__ else: clone_type = new_type new_params = new_type.params() params = {k: v for k, v in params.items() if k in new_params} if params.get('group') == self.params()['group'].default: params.pop('group') settings = dict(params, **overrides) if 'id' not in settings: settings['id'] = if data is None and shared_data: data = settings['plot_id'] = self._plot_id # Apply name mangling for __ attribute pos_args = getattr(self, '_' + type(self).__name__ + '__pos_params', []) return clone_type(data, *args, **{k:v for k,v in settings.items() if k not in pos_args})
[docs] def relabel(self, label=None, group=None, depth=0): """ Assign a new label and/or group to an existing LabelledData object, creating a clone of the object with the new settings. """ new_data = if (depth > 0) and getattr(self, '_deep_indexable', False): new_data = [] for k, v in relabelled = v.relabel(group=group, label=label, depth=depth-1) new_data.append((k, relabelled)) keywords = [('label', label), ('group', group)] kwargs = {k: v for k, v in keywords if v is not None} return self.clone(new_data, **kwargs)
[docs] def matches(self, spec): """ A specification may be a class, a tuple or a string. Equivalent to isinstance if a class is supplied, otherwise matching occurs on type, group and label. These may be supplied as a tuple of strings or as a single string of the form "{type}.{group}.{label}". Matching may be done on {type} alone, {type}.{group}, or {type}.{group}.{label}. The strings for the type, group, and label will each be sanitized before the match, and so the sanitized versions of those values will need to be provided if the match is to succeed. """ if callable(spec) and not isinstance(spec, type): return spec(self) elif isinstance(spec, type): return isinstance(self, spec) specification = (self.__class__.__name__,, self.label) split_spec = tuple(spec.split('.')) if not isinstance(spec, tuple) else spec split_spec, nocompare = zip(*((None, True) if s == '*' or s is None else (s, False) for s in split_spec)) if all(nocompare): return True match_fn = itemgetter(*(idx for idx, nc in enumerate(nocompare) if not nc)) self_spec = match_fn(split_spec) unescaped_match = match_fn(specification[:len(split_spec)]) == self_spec if unescaped_match: return True sanitizers = [sanitize_identifier, group_sanitizer, label_sanitizer] identifier_specification = tuple(fn(ident, escape=False) for ident, fn in zip(specification, sanitizers)) identifier_match = match_fn(identifier_specification[:len(split_spec)]) == self_spec return identifier_match
[docs] def traverse(self, fn, specs=None, full_breadth=True): """ Traverses any nested LabelledData object (i.e LabelledData objects containing LabelledData objects), applying the supplied function to each constituent element if the supplied specifications. The output of these function calls are collected and returned in the accumulator list. If specs is None, all constituent elements are processed. Otherwise, specs must be a list of specs, types, and functions. """ accumulator = [] matches = specs is None if not matches: for spec in specs: matches = self.matches(spec) if matches: break if matches: accumulator.append(fn(self)) # Assumes composite objects are iterables if self._deep_indexable: for el in self: if el is None: continue accumulator += el.traverse(fn, specs, full_breadth) if not full_breadth: break return accumulator
[docs] def map(self, map_fn, specs=None, clone=True): """ Recursively replaces elements using a map function when the specification applies. """ if specs and not isinstance(specs, list): specs = [specs] applies = specs is None or any(self.matches(spec) for spec in specs) if self._deep_indexable: deep_mapped = self.clone(shared_data=False) if clone else self for k, v in self.items(): new_val =, specs, clone) if new_val is not None: deep_mapped[k] = new_val if applies: deep_mapped = map_fn(deep_mapped) return deep_mapped else: return map_fn(self) if applies else self
def __getstate__(self): """ When pickling, make sure to save the relevant style and plotting options as well. """ obj_dict = self.__dict__.copy() try: if Store.save_option_state and (obj_dict.get('id', None) is not None): custom_key = '_custom_option_%d' % obj_dict['id'] if custom_key not in obj_dict: obj_dict[custom_key] = {backend:s[obj_dict['id']] for backend,s in Store._custom_options.items() if obj_dict['id'] in s} else: obj_dict['id'] = None except: self.warning("Could not pickle custom style information.") return obj_dict def __setstate__(self, d): """ When unpickled, restore the saved style and plotting options to ViewableElement.options. """ d = param_aliases(d) try: load_options = Store.load_counter_offset is not None if load_options: matches = [k for k in d if k.startswith('_custom_option')] for match in matches: custom_id = int(match.split('_')[-1]) if not isinstance(d[match], dict): # Backward compatibility before multiple backends backend_info = {'matplotlib':d[match]} else: backend_info = d[match] for backend, info in backend_info.items(): if backend not in Store._custom_options: Store._custom_options[backend] = {} Store._custom_options[backend][Store.load_counter_offset + custom_id] = info d.pop(match) if d['id'] is not None: d['id'] += Store.load_counter_offset else: d['id'] = None except: self.warning("Could not unpickle custom style information.") self.__dict__.update(d)
[docs]class Dimensioned(LabelledData): """ Dimensioned is a base class that allows the data contents of a class to be associated with dimensions. The contents associated with dimensions may be partitioned into one of three types * key dimensions: These are the dimensions that can be indexed via the __getitem__ method. Dimension objects supporting key dimensions must support indexing over these dimensions and may also support slicing. This list ordering of dimensions describes the positional components of each multi-dimensional indexing operation. For instance, if the key dimension names are 'weight' followed by 'height' for Dimensioned object 'obj', then obj[80,175] indexes a weight of 80 and height of 175. Accessed using either kdims or key_dimensions. * value dimensions: These dimensions correspond to any data held on the Dimensioned object not in the key dimensions. Indexing by value dimension is supported by dimension name (when there are multiple possible value dimensions); no slicing semantics is supported and all the data associated with that dimension will be returned at once. Note that it is not possible to mix value dimensions and deep dimensions. Accessed using either vdims or value_dimensions. * deep dimensions: These are dynamically computed dimensions that belong to other Dimensioned objects that are nested in the data. Objects that support this should enable the _deep_indexable flag. Note that it is not possible to mix value dimensions and deep dimensions. Accessed using either ddims or deep_dimensions. Dimensioned class support generalized methods for finding the range and type of values along a particular Dimension. The range method relies on the appropriate implementation of the dimension_values methods on subclasses. The index of an arbitrary dimension is its positional index in the list of all dimensions, starting with the key dimensions, followed by the value dimensions and ending with the deep dimensions. """ cdims = param.Dict(default=OrderedDict(), doc=""" The constant dimensions defined as a dictionary of Dimension:value pairs providing additional dimension information about the object. Aliased with constant_dimensions.""") kdims = param.List(bounds=(0, None), constant=True, doc=""" The key dimensions defined as list of dimensions that may be used in indexing (and potential slicing) semantics. The order of the dimensions listed here determines the semantics of each component of a multi-dimensional indexing operation. Aliased with key_dimensions.""") vdims = param.List(bounds=(0, None), constant=True, doc=""" The value dimensions defined as the list of dimensions used to describe the components of the data. If multiple value dimensions are supplied, a particular value dimension may be indexed by name after the key dimensions. Aliased with value_dimensions.""") group = param.String(default='Dimensioned', constant=True, doc=""" A string describing the data wrapped by the object.""") __abstract = True _dim_groups = ['kdims', 'vdims', 'cdims', 'ddims'] _dim_aliases = dict(key_dimensions='kdims', value_dimensions='vdims', constant_dimensions='cdims', deep_dimensions='ddims') def __init__(self, data, kdims=None, vdims=None, **params): params.update(process_dimensions(kdims, vdims)) if 'cdims' in params: params['cdims'] = {d if isinstance(d, Dimension) else Dimension(d): val for d, val in params['cdims'].items()} super(Dimensioned, self).__init__(data, **params) self.ndims = len(self.kdims) cdims = [(, val) for d, val in self.cdims.items()] self._cached_constants = OrderedDict(cdims) self._settings = None self.redim = redim(self) def _valid_dimensions(self, dimensions): """Validates key dimension input Returns kdims if no dimensions are specified""" if dimensions is None: dimensions = self.kdims elif not isinstance(dimensions, list): dimensions = [dimensions] valid_dimensions = [] for dim in dimensions: if isinstance(dim, Dimension): dim = if dim not in self.kdims: raise Exception("Supplied dimensions %s not found." % dim) valid_dimensions.append(dim) return valid_dimensions @property def ddims(self): "The list of deep dimensions" if self._deep_indexable and self: return self.values()[0].dimensions() else: return []
[docs] def dimensions(self, selection='all', label=False): """ Provides convenient access to Dimensions on nested Dimensioned objects. Dimensions can be selected by their type, i.e. 'key' or 'value' dimensions. By default 'all' dimensions are returned. """ if label in ['name', True]: label = 'short' elif label == 'label': label = 'long' elif label: raise ValueError("label needs to be one of True, False, 'name' or 'label'") lambdas = {'k': (lambda x: x.kdims, {'full_breadth': False}), 'v': (lambda x: x.vdims, {}), 'c': (lambda x: x.cdims, {})} aliases = {'key': 'k', 'value': 'v', 'constant': 'c'} if selection in ['all', 'ranges']: groups = [d for d in self._dim_groups if d != 'cdims'] dims = [dim for group in groups for dim in getattr(self, group)] elif isinstance(selection, list): dims = [dim for group in selection for dim in getattr(self, '%sdims' % aliases.get(group))] elif aliases.get(selection) in lambdas: selection = aliases.get(selection, selection) lmbd, kwargs = lambdas[selection] key_traversal = self.traverse(lmbd, **kwargs) dims = [dim for keydims in key_traversal for dim in keydims] else: raise KeyError("Invalid selection %r, valid selections include" "'all', 'value' and 'key' dimensions" % repr(selection)) return [(dim.label if label == 'long' else if label else dim for dim in dims]
[docs] def get_dimension(self, dimension, default=None, strict=False): """ Access a Dimension object by name or index. Returns the default value if the dimension is not found and strict is False. If strict is True, a KeyError is raised instead. """ if dimension is not None and not isinstance(dimension, (int, basestring, Dimension)): raise TypeError('Dimension lookup supports int, string, ' 'and Dimension instances, cannot lookup ' 'Dimensions using %s type.' % type(dimension).__name__) all_dims = self.dimensions() if isinstance(dimension, Dimension): dimension = if isinstance(dimension, int): if 0 <= dimension < len(all_dims): return all_dims[dimension] elif strict: raise KeyError("Dimension %r not found" % dimension) else: return default name_map = { dim for dim in all_dims} name_map.update({dim.label: dim for dim in all_dims}) name_map.update({dimension_sanitizer( dim for dim in all_dims}) if strict and dimension not in name_map: raise KeyError("Dimension %r not found." % dimension) else: return name_map.get(dimension, default)
[docs] def get_dimension_index(self, dim): """ Returns the index of the requested dimension. """ if isinstance(dim, Dimension): dim = if isinstance(dim, int): if (dim < (self.ndims + len(self.vdims)) or dim < len(self.dimensions())): return dim else: return IndexError('Dimension index out of bounds') try: dimensions = self.kdims+self.vdims return [i for i, d in enumerate(dimensions) if d == dim][0] except IndexError: raise Exception("Dimension %s not found in %s." % (dim, self.__class__.__name__))
[docs] def get_dimension_type(self, dim): """ Returns the specified Dimension type if specified or if the dimension_values types are consistent otherwise None is returned. """ dim_obj = self.get_dimension(dim) if dim_obj and dim_obj.type is not None: return dim_obj.type dim_vals = [type(v) for v in self.dimension_values(dim)] if len(set(dim_vals)) == 1: return dim_vals[0] else: return None
def __getitem__(self, key): """ Multi-dimensional indexing semantics is determined by the list of key dimensions. For instance, the first indexing component will index the first key dimension. After the key dimensions are given, *either* a value dimension name may follow (if there are multiple value dimensions) *or* deep dimensions may then be listed (for applicable deep dimensions). """ return self
[docs] def select(self, selection_specs=None, **kwargs): """ Allows slicing or indexing into the Dimensioned object by supplying the dimension and index/slice as key value pairs. Select descends recursively through the data structure applying the key dimension selection. The 'value' keyword allows selecting the value dimensions on objects which have any declared. The selection may also be selectively applied to specific objects by supplying the selection_specs as an iterable of specs, types or functions. """ # Apply all indexes applying on this object vdims = self.vdims+['value'] if self.vdims else [] kdims = self.kdims local_kwargs = {k: v for k, v in kwargs.items() if k in kdims+vdims} # Check selection_spec applies if selection_specs is not None: if not isinstance(selection_specs, (list, tuple)): selection_specs = [selection_specs] matches = any(self.matches(spec) for spec in selection_specs) else: matches = True # Apply selection to self if local_kwargs and matches: ndims = self.ndims if any(d in self.vdims for d in kwargs): ndims = len(self.kdims+self.vdims) select = [slice(None) for _ in range(ndims)] for dim, val in local_kwargs.items(): if dim == 'value': select += [val] else: if isinstance(val, tuple): val = slice(*val) select[self.get_dimension_index(dim)] = val if self._deep_indexable: selection = self.get(tuple(select), None) if selection is None: selection = self.clone(shared_data=False) else: selection = self[tuple(select)] else: selection = self if not isinstance(selection, Dimensioned): return selection elif type(selection) is not type(self) and isinstance(selection, Dimensioned): # Apply the selection on the selected object of a different type dimensions = selection.dimensions() + ['value'] if any(kw in dimensions for kw in kwargs): selection =, **kwargs) elif isinstance(selection, Dimensioned) and selection._deep_indexable: # Apply the deep selection on each item in local selection items = [] for k, v in selection.items(): dimensions = v.dimensions() + ['value'] if any(kw in dimensions for kw in kwargs): items.append((k,, **kwargs))) else: items.append((k, v)) selection = selection.clone(items) return selection
[docs] def dimension_values(self, dimension, expanded=True, flat=True): """ Returns the values along the specified dimension. This method must be implemented for all Dimensioned type. """ val = self._cached_constants.get(dimension, None) if val: return np.array([val]) else: raise Exception("Dimension %s not found in %s." % (dimension, self.__class__.__name__))
[docs] def range(self, dimension, data_range=True): """ Returns the range of values along the specified dimension. If data_range is True, the data may be used to try and infer the appropriate range. Otherwise, (None,None) is returned to indicate that no range is defined. """ dimension = self.get_dimension(dimension) if dimension is None: return (None, None) elif all(isfinite(v) for v in dimension.range): return dimension.range elif data_range: if dimension in self.kdims+self.vdims: dim_vals = self.dimension_values( lower, upper = find_range(dim_vals) else: dname = match_fn = lambda x: dname in x.kdims + x.vdims range_fn = lambda x: x.range(dname) ranges = self.traverse(range_fn, [match_fn]) lower, upper = max_range(ranges) else: lower, upper = (np.NaN, np.NaN) return dimension_range(lower, upper, dimension)
def __repr__(self): return PrettyPrinter.pprint(self) def __str__(self): return repr(self) def __unicode__(self): return unicode(PrettyPrinter.pprint(self)) def __call__(self, options=None, **kwargs): if config.warn_options_call: self.warning('Use of __call__ to set options will be deprecated ' 'in future. Use the equivalent opts method instead.') return self.opts(options, **kwargs)
[docs] def opts(self, options=None, backend=None, clone=True, **kwargs): """ Applies options on an object or nested group of objects in a by options group returning a new object with the options applied. If the options are to be set directly on the object a simple format may be used, e.g.: obj.opts(style={'cmap': 'viridis'}, plot={'show_title': False}) If the object is nested the options must be qualified using a type[.group][.label] specification, e.g.: obj.opts({'Image': {'plot': {'show_title': False}, 'style': {'cmap': 'viridis}}}) If no opts are supplied all options on the object will be reset. Disabling clone will modify the object inplace. """ backend = backend or Store.current_backend if isinstance(options, basestring): from ..util.parser import OptsSpec try: options = OptsSpec.parse(options) except SyntaxError: options = OptsSpec.parse( '{clsname} {options}'.format(clsname=self.__class__.__name__, options=options)) backend_options = Store.options(backend=backend) groups = set(backend_options.groups.keys()) if kwargs and set(kwargs) <= groups: if not all(isinstance(v, dict) for v in kwargs.values()): raise Exception("The %s options must be specified using dictionary groups" % ','.join(repr(k) for k in kwargs.keys())) # Check whether the user is specifying targets (such as 'Image.Foo') entries = backend_options.children targets = [k.split('.')[0] in entries for grp in kwargs.values() for k in grp] if any(targets) and not all(targets): raise Exception("Cannot mix target specification keys such as 'Image' with non-target keywords.") elif not any(targets): # Not targets specified - add current object as target sanitized_group = group_sanitizer( if self.label: identifier = ('%s.%s.%s' % (self.__class__.__name__, sanitized_group, label_sanitizer(self.label))) elif sanitized_group != self.__class__.__name__: identifier = '%s.%s' % (self.__class__.__name__, sanitized_group) else: identifier = self.__class__.__name__ kwargs = {k:{identifier:v} for k,v in kwargs.items()} obj = self if options is None and kwargs == {}: if clone: obj = x: x.clone(id=None)) else: x: setattr(x, 'id', None)) elif clone: obj = x: x.clone( StoreOptions.set_options(obj, options, backend=backend, **kwargs) return obj
[docs] def options(self, options=None, backend=None, clone=True, **kwargs): """ Applies options on an object or nested group of objects in a flat format returning a new object with the options applied. If the options are to be set directly on the object a simple format may be used, e.g.: obj.options(cmap='viridis', show_title=False) If the object is nested the options must be qualified using a type[.group][.label] specification, e.g.: obj.options('Image', cmap='viridis', show_title=False) or using: obj.options({'Image': dict(cmap='viridis', show_title=False)}) If no options are supplied all options on the object will be reset. Disabling clone will modify the object inplace. """ if isinstance(options, basestring): options = {options: kwargs} elif options and kwargs: raise ValueError("Options must be defined in one of two formats." "Either supply keywords defining the options for " "the current object, e.g. obj.options(cmap='viridis'), " "or explicitly define the type, e.g." "obj.options({'Image': {'cmap': 'viridis'}})." "Supplying both formats is not supported.") elif kwargs: options = {type(self).__name__: kwargs} from ..util import opts if options is None: expanded = {} else: expanded = opts.expand_options(options, backend) return self.opts(expanded, backend, clone)
def _repr_mimebundle_(self, include=None, exclude=None): """ Resolves the class hierarchy for the class rendering the object using any display hooks registered on Store.display hooks. The output of all registered display_hooks is then combined and returned. """ return Store.render(self)
[docs]class ViewableElement(Dimensioned): """ A ViewableElement is a dimensioned datastructure that may be associated with a corresponding atomic visualization. An atomic visualization will display the data on a single set of axes (i.e. excludes multiple subplots that are displayed at once). The only new parameter introduced by ViewableElement is the title associated with the object for display. """ __abstract = True _auxiliary_component = False group = param.String(default='ViewableElement', constant=True)